Are you worried about how to grab good scores in your board exam? Everyone around you might be talking about your exams & there would be an environment filled with tension right? Science is a subject that is most important to plan as there are many topics involved. Do Physics, Chemistry, Biology learning those and remember seem difficult to you? We know class 10 is one of the most important milestones in your life. and with everyone talking about the exams – from friends to teachers, and from parents to relatives, an air full of tension surrounds you. Take a long breath and relax! We are here to help you with easy tips to score good in your exams and provide you a roadmap to study effectively for your exams. Let’s see the Science 2 Chapter wise summary & exam tips for Maharashtra State board we have for you.
Science 2 Do’s and Don’ts for your next Board Exams:
- Make sure you have prepared a comprehensive list of all formulae, diagrams, experiments, as well as derivations , etc.
- Avoid skipping the Practical i.e. Laboratory Classes as well as Lectures.
- Try to use the Laboratory more for your Experiments, the more you practise, the more easily you can understand.
- Make a note of the formulas with necessary rules that must be followed strictly as well as used correctly.
- For CBSE other than books provided to you also refer NCERT books
- Practice numerical questions of Physics thoroughly.
- Remember the difficult terminology, its diagram as well as meaning for Biology .
- Revise all the theorems as well as direct formulas for Physics.
- Make note of important terms and their respective functions and conversion for Chemistry
- Learn how to balance the chemical reactions.
Important topics to study to score good in your exams:
Periodic Classification of Elements:
- Mendeleev’s Periodic table
- Modern periodic table and its properties
How do Organisms Reproduce?
- Sexual Reproduction
- Female Reproductive System
- Tissue Culture
- Sexual and Asexual Reproduction
- Reproductive Health
Heredity and Evolution
- Monohybrid and Dihybrid Cross
- Homologous and Analogous Organs
Science 2 Chapter wise Summary:
Heredity and Evolution
This chapter revolves around Heredity and its Evolution. Hereditary is the transfer of biological characters from one generation to another with the help of genes. All living organisms except viruses have DNA as genetic material was proved by trio of scientists Ostwald Avery, Maclyn McCarthy and Colin MacLeod. It further explains that Process of RNA synthesis is called Transcription. tRNA has ‘anticodon having a complementary sequence to the codon on mRNA. This is called Translation. When the ribosome keeps on moving from one end of mRNA to the other end by the distance of one triplet codon it is Translocation. On the other hand,Evolution is Formation of new species due to changes in specific characters of several generations of living organisms as a response to natural selection is called evolution. Furthermore, Morphological, Anatomical, Paleontological as well as Embryological Evidence. Don’t forget Darwin’s theory which specifies Human Evolution.
Life Processes in Living Organisms Part 1:
Along with the various systems like digestive, respiratory, circulatory, excretory and control systems, different external and internal organs are performing their functions independently but through a complete co-ordination.Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon dioxide refers to respiration at body level. Whereas, Cellular respiration occurs among the living organisms by two methods:
- Aerobic respiration (oxygen is involved).
- Anaerobic respiration (oxygen is not involved).
In aerobic respiration, glucose is oxidised in three steps: –
- Tricarboxylic acid cycle
- Electron transfer chain reaction
Glycolysis and fermentation are two steps of anaerobic respiration.Cell division is one of the very important properties of cells and living organisms which leads to Formation of a new organism from an existing one, and they are divided into 2 types i.e. Mitosis occurs in somatic cells and stem cells of the body, whereas meiosis occurs in germ cells.
This chapter stresses on Environmental Management. Environment is divided into 2 major types i.e. Natural and Artificial. However, Environment is formed with the help of Biotic Factors (e.g. Plants, animals,microbes, fungi)and Abiotic factors (e.g. Soil, temperature, light, pH, etc.) The interaction of biotic and abiotic factors firms Ecology which is a unit to study ecosystems.Biodiversity occurs at three different levels, viz. Genetic Diversity, Species Diversity and Ecosystem Diversity. Towards the end there are various Laws for Environmental Conservation like Forest Conservation Act, 1980; Environment Protection Act, 1986; Wild Life Protection Act, 1972.
There are approximately seven millions species on the earth.The systematic grouping, i.e. classification will make it very easy to study such a vast variety of animals. Greek Philosopher Aristotle was the first to perform animal classification. The Natural System of Classification was based on various criteria like body organisation, types of cells, chromosomes, bio-chemical properties, etc. By the time, the system of classification based on evolution was also brought into practice. It was used by Dobzhansky and Meyer. Recently Carl Woese has also proposed animal classification.
Traditionally, depending upon the presence or absence of the notochord, the animal kingdom has been classified into Non-chordates and Chordates. Non-Chordates are further classified into 10 phyla. Protozoa, Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, Aschelminthes, Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca, Echinodermata, Hemichordata. Chordates are further classified into Urochordata, Cephalochordata and Vertebrata. Subphylum Vertebrata is divided into six classes: Cyclostomata, Pisces, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia. According to Robert Whittaker, all multicellular animals are included in Kingdom Animalia. There are different criteria for classifying animals. They are Grades of Organization, Body symmetry, Germ layers, Body cavity (Coelom), Body segmentation.
Life Processes in Living Organisms Part II:
This chapter focuses on a lot of important aspects related to Reproduction in Living Organisms. To sum up everything, Reproduction occurs mainly by two methods : Asexual reproduction and Sexual reproduction.Process of formation of new organisms by an organism of the same species without involvement of gametes Is called as asexual reproduction. Furthermore, Asexual reproduction in unicellular organisms involves Binary Fission, Multiple Fission and Budding. Asexual Reproduction in multicellular organisms includes Fragmentation, Regeneration, Budding, Vegetative Propagation and last but not least Spore formation.
Talking about sexual reproduction, it always occurs with the help of two germ cells : female gamete and male gamete. Don’t miss that a flower is the structural unit of sexual reproduction in plants. Moving ahead sexual reproduction in human beings consists of following stages Gamete formation, fertilization, development and birth. Furthermore, Reproduction and modern technology used to improve reproductive health is something you should definitely learn.
Introduction to Microbiology:
In this chapter you will study that Applied Microbiology is a branch of biology which studies the enzymes related to some prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes, proteins, applied genetics, molecular biology, etc is performed. Whereas, Industrial Microbiology is related to commercial use of microbes in which various economic, social and environmental related processes and products are included.
Main Features includes:
- Various productions with the help of the fermentation process. eg. bread, cheese, wine.
- Raw materials for chemicals, enzymes, nutrients, medicines, etc.
- Use of microbes for garbage management and pollution control.
Furthermore, Microbes play an important role in disposal of solid waste through biogas plant and compost production. Microbes have the natural ability of decomposing man-made chemicals. Which refers to Clean Technology Biofuel is important among the renewable sources of good energy. Microbes are used for bioremediation of the environment and help in plant growth by supplying nutrients. Some bacteria, fungi and viruses are useful as pesticides.
Various dangerous events occurring many times in the environment are called disasters. Period of each disaster is also not the same. Some disasters are short term whereas some are long term. Various areas of life like economic, social, cultural, political, law and administration etc. are affected by disaster. Disasters making the impact for a long duration are those whose after effects are either severe or severity increases with time. Cyclones, earthquakes, famines, floods, droughts, etc. are some of the disasters. Disasters are classified into following three types:
(i) Geophysical (ii) Biological (iii) Man-made.
Taking into consideration the scope of disaster, some of the important facts include Pre-disaster phase, Warning phase, Emergency phase, Rehabilitation phase, Recovery phase and Reconstruction phase. Disaster management is either prevention of disasters or making arrangements to face it or at least achieve the abilities to face them. There is a close relationship between disaster management and public participation. You will further learn that Mock drills are a practice to check the preparedness of facing the disaster as early as possible including demonstrations like extinguishing the fire, rescuing the people trapped at higher floors of buildings, rescuing the persons whose clothing have caught fire, etc.
Towards green energy:
In this Chapter Various types of Energy and How Green Energy is helping for a sustainable environment is explained. Energy is of two types; namely,Potential energy and kinetic energy. In the nuclear power plant, the nuclear energy is first converted into thermal energy, then thermal energy is converted into kinetic energy of steam, then kinetic energy of steam is converted into kinetic energy of the turbine and finally the kinetic energy of the turbine is converted into electrical energy. Furthermore, how solar energy is generated and at the same time used as an conservative measure to decrease the emission of harmful substances.
Cell biology and Biotechnology:
Stem cells are special cells present in the body of multicellular organisms, which give rise to all other types of cells present in the body. Regenerative therapy includes cell therapy in which stem cells are used to replace dead cells in case of conditions like diabetes, myocardial infarction, Alzeheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. It is also used to produce blood cells in conditions like anaemia, thalassaemia and leukemia. Biotechnology is bringing artificial genetic changes and hybridization in organisms for human welfare. Benefits of Biotechnology include
- Increase in per hectare yield of crop-land has become possible.
- Expenses on disease control have been minimized since the development of resistant varieties.
- Development of fast fruit setting varieties and their yield per annum.
Development of stress resistant varieties which can withstand variable temperature, water-stress,changing fertility of soil, etc. Thereafter, the commercial Commercial applications of Biotechnology are explained. Most importantly, it helps in diagnosis and treatment of diseases at an early stage. Various vaccines and antibiotics are produced. It is also useful in production of hormones like insulin, somatotropin and blood clotting. Towards the end of the chapter, DNA Fingerprinting, Green Revolution as well as Organic Farming are explained.
Social health is the ability of a person to establish relationships with other persons. Factors disturbing the social health are Mental stress, Addiction, Incurable disease as well as Cyber Crimes. Furthermore towards the end, various Stress management techniques are explained.
Exam Pattern for Science 2 2023:
Being one of the most important as well as practical subjects, this subject needs constant practice, understanding as well as revision . It is better to start your preparation in advance to score well. Following mentioned is the Exam Pattern for Science. There is a single paper of 80 marks for the Science subject for CBSE as well as Maharashtra Board SSC.
The remaining 20 Marks (internal) are alloted in basis of oral tests, practicals, etc.
Students must pay equal attention to all the three aspects in Science – Physics, Chemistry, and Biology. Studying these thoroughly will ensure Class 10 students have a strong foundation.
Last Minute Science 2 Exam Tips:
Science is an important subject for students who are looking forward to take Science stream in Class 11. Don’t miss these Science 2 Exam tips so that you can take a step towards your academic success!
- Get up early and use that time to study important topics
- Share problems you are facing and look for solutions
- Review the summaries you have rather than the entire chapters
- Reduce your Screen Time avoid using Technology
- Consider taking breaks, refresh yourself and start again.
- Get everything ready and in place for the next day
- Give more focus on your weak points
- Solve Mock papers
- Have a clear overview of your Exam
To conclude, Class 10 students should follow a schedule so that they can give equal time for all the subjects they have. Hope the above discussed Science 2 Chapter wise summary and exam tips is helpful! Stay Tuned for further Updates on Maharashtra State board as well as CBSE exams. Don’t forget to download our app “SIR ACADEMY“.
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